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Introduction and overview
Python is an interactive, high-level, interpreter-based as well as object-oriented scripting language. It uses very clear and clean syntax as well as few keywords other than other languages. The feature of clean syntax with high-level data types tend to this language very efficient, fast coding and user-friendly. This is not a type-less language but python variables do not require any declaration. The following advantages are achieved by this language.
Interactive: Users can easily interact with the interpreter using Python prompt as well as environment enables to write programs directly.
Interpreter-based: It is a scripting language that is processed by the interpreter at run time. So, compilation of the program before executing is not necessary.
Object-oriented: This language supports all object oriented features where code is encapsulated within objects.
Vast application: This language has extensive features for developing wide range of applications like simple text processing, WWW browsers, games, etc.
Highly portability: Due to using machine independent byte codes, this language executes in any platform like Windows and Linux environment, workstations, high-end servers, etc.
Extendable: Low-level modules to the Python interpreter can be added. These modules enable programmers to add to or customize their tools to be more efficient.
Databases: Python provides interfaces to all major commercial databases.
GUI Programming: Python supports GUI applications that can be created and ported to many system calls, libraries and windows systems, such as Windows MFC, Macintosh, and the X Window system of UNIX.
Scalable: Python offers big programs in a better way than shell scripting.
The structured, functional as well as object-oriented programming methods are supported by the Python program.
To build large applications, Python provides scripting and compiled byte-code features.
The dynamic type checking and data-types are supported by this program.
The garbage collection is also done automatically by this program.
Various high-level programming like C, Java, C++, CORBA, ActiveX, etc. can be integrated with this program.
Productivity: This program enhances productivity due to reduced development time and cost, increases maintainability as well as easily learnable and readable.
The vast application areas of using Python programming are as follows,
simple text processing
rapid prototyping creation
XML (extensive markup language) processing
GUI(Graphical User Interface) applications
Machine learning and data science applications
History of Python:
In the late 80s and early 90s at Netherlands, Guido van Rossum developed the Python at the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science.
From other high-level languages like Modula-3, ABC, C, Algol-68, UNIX shell scripting and Small Talk, the Python program is derived.
Python source code is accessible under the GNU General Public License (GPL) at present like Perl scripting language.
In the November 1994, Python 1.0 is developed and Python 2.0 was released in the year 2000. Python 2’s last version is Python 2.7.11.
In 2008, Python 3.0 was released but this version is not backward well-suited with Python 2. The Python 3 has the feature to remove duplicate programming constructs along with modules. Python 3.8.0 is the latest version of Python 3.